Source: European Commission
Deep saline aquifers
FIG. 3 NATURAL GAS RESERVOIR CO2 PHASES
– 80 – 60 – 40 – 20 0 20 40 60 80 100
– 56. 40
International Energy Agency
SERBIA POWER GENERATION
Coal Oil Naturalgas Hydro
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
have been used very little because they
Serbia’s portion of Pannonian ba-
sin features four basic hydrogeological
• Pontian sediment rocks con-
sisting of sands and gravel of various
granulations with a clay cap rock. This
system covers nearly all of Vojvodina
province except Fruska Gora and Vr-
sacki Breg. Its water has mineraliza-
tion of 3-5 mg/l.
• Lower Pontian and Pannonian
sediment rocks, featuring sandstones
and cap rocks that are marls, marlstones, and clays. Mineral content varies from 5-20 mg/l.
•Miocene, Paleogene, Jurassic,
and Cretaceous rocks and cap rocks
that are marls, marlstones, and clays.
Formation waters have 50 mg/l. min-eralization.
• Magmatic, metamorphic, and
sedimentary rocks of Triassic and Paleozoic ages.
For CO2 storage in saline aquifers, Serbia’s best available options are 2,000
m deep where the geothermal gradient
varies from 95-120° C. Saline aquifers are distributed widely worldwide
but researchers know little about their
geological properties relative to CCS. 3-5
Serbia’s coal seams are mostly shallow and not considered good CCS candidates.
Fig. 2 is a CCS schematic showing
options, which include depleted oil
and gas reservoirs, featuring seals and
traps that have retained oil and gas for
millions of years. Reservoir properties
are well known from years of production.
CCS projects must follow strict
standards. Possible migration of CO2
from storage formation to the surface
poses a health risk. Safety concerns
about CCS trigger negative public perception.
Key factors influencing geological
storage of CO2 include formation depth,
state of CO2 in geological condition,
and the formation’s fractures and faults.